Article: The sound of trust: sonification of car intentions and perception in a context of autonomous drive (Int. J. Human Factors and Ergonomics, Vol. 7, No. 4, 2020)
Johan Fagerlönn, Pontus Larsson, Justyna Maculewicz
Article: Intuitive And Subtle Motion-Anticipatory Auditory Cues Reduce Motion Sickness In Self Driving Cars (to be published)
Justyna Maculewicz, Pontus Larsson, Johan Fagerlönn
Article: Auditory Displays for Automated Driving – Challenges and Opportunities (ICAD, 2019)
Pontus Larsson, Johan Fagerlönn, Justyna Maculewicz, and Max Lachmann
Book chapter: UX research and sonic interaction: Towards human-centric and intuitive sound interaction design in the context of Autonomous Driving in User Experience Design in the Era of Automated Driving, Springer (to be published)
Justyna Maculewicz and Katalin Osz
Master thesis: A practically developed approach to evaluate sonic interfaces of autonomous cars
The sound of trust: sonification of car intentions and perception in a context of autonomous drive
Intuitive And Subtle Motion-Anticipatory Auditory Cues Reduce Motion Sickness In Self Driving Cars
Abstract. Motion sickness may be a factor detrimental to the experience of self driving cars. This study investigates whether auditory displays can support in lowering passengers’ feeling of motion sickness by allowing the passengers to anticipate upcoming manoeuvres. Twenty participants took part in the study and rode on a specially designed test track with and without auditory display while performing a reading task. The display provided information about upcoming car manoeuvres which were identified as being potentially motion sickness inducing and the sounds were designed to resemble the actual sound of the manoeuvres taking place. Sounds representing acceleration, deceleration and left and right turns were played slightly in advance of the upcoming manoeuvre. Participants rated their motion sickness at regular intervals during the ride as well as before and after the ride. The results showed that motion sickness ratings in the auditory display condition were statistically significantly lower compared to the condition without sound. The sounds were also judged as intuitive and helpful by the users who reported willingness to use them when riding autonomous cars in the future, especially while reading or working. These results have implications for the interaction design of self-driving cars and can guide future auditory display research.
Auditory Displays for Automated Driving – Challenges and Opportunities
Abstract. The current position paper discusses vital challenges related to the user experience design in unsupervised, highly automated cars. These challenges are: (1) how to avoid motion sickness, (2) how to ensure users’ trust in the automation, (3) how to ensure usability and support the formation of accurate mental models of the automation system, and (4) how to provide a pleasant and enjoyable experience. We argue for that auditory displays have the potential to help solve these issues. While auditory displays in modern vehicles typically make use of discrete and salient cues, we argue that the use of less intrusive continuous sonic interaction could be more beneficial for the user experience.
UX research and sonic interaction: Towards human-centric and intuitive sound interaction design in the context of Autonomous Driving
Abstract. One of the major challenges of user experience (UX) design in autonomous driving (AD) is to investigate the emerging expectations and needs of future passengers. Working with foresight into future interactions requires interdisciplinary collaboration that enables new modes of working. In our everyday work and throughout the sound interaction design process, we are often challenged by the lack of exploratory methodologies for involving human insights early on in the sound interaction design process. This chapter draws on the interviews with experts in sound design and UX domains, the research project, Sound Interaction for Intelligent Cars (SIIC), as well as daily product development work at the Volvo Car Corporation (VCC) to address this gap. We characterise what we call the classic approach to sound interaction design and outline methodologies used at different stages of the design thinking process for generating and translating UX insights into sonic interaction solutions. By this, we broaden the way of practicing participatory sound UX for AD development and respond to the challenge by incorporating existing exploratory design research methodologies, such as sensory ethnography, soundwalk, co-creation, ideation, and rapid prototyping.
A practically developed approach to evaluate sonic interfaces of autonomous cars
Abstract. This thesis was a part of the SIIC-project (Sonic Interaction in Intelligent Cars) initiated by FFI (Fordonsstrategisk forskning och innovation), consulted by Volvo, Pole Position Production and Research Institutes of Sweden. The SIIC-project was about exploring sonic tools to affect the experience of self-driving cars. Sonic tools is implemented practically as sonic interfaces. Because of its visionary character, it was key to establish a foundation regarding future relevant information, user problems and user scenarios. The ideation process generated three conceptual sonic interfaces that accommodated three found user problems; Motion sickness, Informational overload and Low trust towards self-driving cars. One of these concept was made a functioning prototype implemented in video of relevant user scenarios. Carefully chosen metrics (SelfAssessment Manikin-, Van der Laan’s Acceptance- and Likert-scales) were assembled into an evaluation method. The method, together with the vide prototype, was then implemented in study with 30 participant, providing analytical material to finally review the metrics of the evaluation method. The Self-Assessment Manikin and Van der Laan’s Acceptance scale were thought to highly contribute to the evaluation of participants experience of the interface. The Likert scales were less contributing, either deemed to be poorly implemented or simply not suiting for the cause. Main indications shows sonic interfaces seems to be capable of increasing a sense of trust towards the self-driving car and this capability seems to be evaluable.